Interaction of Matter



    made up of two or more distinct substances 

    each substance maintains it's own properties

    can be separated physically


    made up of two or more distinct substances 

    new substance with it's own properties created

    chemically combined; cannot be separated physically, only chemically

    compounds are pure substances 



    Consisting of dissimilar elements or parts; not homogeneous


    Uniform in structure or composition throughout


     homogeneous mixture

    consists of solvent and solute(s)


    the material in which the solute is dissolved


    the substance that is dissolved in the solvent


    to cause a substance to unite with the greatest possible amount of another substance


    To cause (a chemical solution) to be more highly concentrated than is normally possible under given conditions of temperature and pressure


    The amount of a substance that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a specified temperature and pressure


    a heterogeneous mixture from which some particles will slowly settle when left alone for a period of time


    A system in which finely divided particles, which are approximately 1 to 1,000 nm in size, are dispersed within a continuous medium in a manner that prevents them from being filtered easily or settled rapidly

To give you some examples:
 Smoke is a colloidal suspension of solid (usually carbon) molecules in the air.
 Fog or Mist
is an Aerosol, a colloidal suspension of liquid (water) molecules in the air.
is a colloidal suspension of solids (usually silica or sand) in the air.
is an Emulsion, a colloidal suspension of liquid (fats & oils) in another liquid (water).
 Gold-Ruby Glass
is a colloidal suspension of one solid (gold) in another solid (glass).
is a colloidal suspension of blood cells in a liquid medium (plasma).

Colloids may be classified according to the original phases of their constituents:

1. Solid dispersed in a liquid is called a Sol.
2. Solid or semisolid colloidal system is a Gel.
3. Emulsion consists of one liquid dispersed in another.
4. Aerosol, such as smoke or mist, consists of a solid or liquid dispersed in a gas.
5. Some Alloys are solid-in-solid colloids.


How Atoms Combine

chemical bond- 

-the force that holds the atoms together in a compound
-contains a great deal of energy
-when these bonds are broken the energy in them is released
-this energy is often seen as heat, but can also be released as light or sound

Valence Electrons-

-electrons involved in chemical bonds
-outer shell electrons


Ionic Bond-

-bond between a positive ion and a negative ion
-caused by opposite electrical charges


Covalent Bond-

-bond in which electrons are shared


Chemical Formula-

Uses the symbol for each atom in a compound to show the simplest ratio of the different ions in a compound

Check out this site for info on combining atoms 
                                        Chemical Formulas     by Ron Kurtus (revised 27 November 2000)


Oxidation Numbers of Some Monatomic Ions



hydrogen, H+

barium, Ba2+          magnesium, Mg2+

cadmium, Cd2+     manganese(II), Mn2+

lithium, Li+

calcium, Ca2+         mercury(II), Hg2+

potassium, K+

cobalt(n), Co2+      nickel(II), Ni2+

silver, Ag+

copper(II), Cu2+   strontium, Sr2+

sodium, Na+

iron(II), Fe2+           tin(II), Sn2+


lead(II), Pb2+          zinc, Zn2+






aluminum, M3+

lead(IV), Pb4+

bromide, Br -

oxide, O2-

chromium(III), Cr3+


chloride, Cr -

sulfide, S2-

iron(III), Fe3+


fluoride, F-




hydride, H-




iodide, I-













  The formula for salt is NaCl. This formula indicates that a one-to-one ratio exists between sodium ions and chloride ions in a crystal of salt. Sodium chloride is an ionic compound, that is, it is composed of charged particles called ions. Note that in the formula for NaCl the positive ion is written first. This is true of most ionic compounds.

Elements also combine in another way. Neutral atoms combine to form neutral particles called molecules. Compounds formed from molecules are called molecular compounds. In Chapter 12, we will study distinct differences in properties between ionic and molecular substances.

The element chlorine is a gas composed of molecules that are diatomic. A diatomic molecule is made of two atoms. One chlorine molecule contains two chlorine atoms. Chlorine gas is represented by the formula Cl2. Some other common elements also occur as diatomic molecules. H2, N2, O2, and F2. 

Charges of Common Polyatomic Ions



ammonium, NH4+

mercury(I), Hg22+




acetate, CH3COO-

carbonate, CO32-

phosphate, PO43-

chlorate, ClO3-

chromate, CrO42-


chlorite, ClO2-

dichromate, Cr2O72-


cyanide, CN-

oxalate, C2C42-


hydroxide, OH-

peroxide, O22-


hypochlorite, ClO-

silicate, SiO32-


iodate, IO3-

sulfate, SO42-


nitrate, NO3-

sulfite, SO32-


nitrite, N02-

tartrate, C4H4O62-


perchlorate, ClO4-

tetraborate, B4O72-


permanganate, MnO4-

thiosulfate, S2O32-










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