Fetal Pig Glossary

Abdomen - The part of the body that lies between the thorax and the pelvis and encloses the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, and pancreas. Also called belly.

anus - the opening at the end of the digestive system from which feces (waste) exits the body.

appendix - a small sac located on the cecum.

ascending colon - the part of the large intestine that run upwards; it is located after the cecum.

Atrium - A bodily cavity or chamber, especially either of the upper chambers of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into a ventricle. In this sense, also called auricle.

bile - a digestive chemical that is produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder, and secreted into the small intestine.

Caecum (or cecum)- The large blind pouch forming the beginning of the large intestine. In this sense, also called blind gut. Called the appendix in Humans.

Cerebral convolutions - The wrinkled outer surface of the cerebrum and the cerebellum.

Cerebrum - The large, rounded structure of the brain occupying most of the cranial cavity, divided into two cerebral hemispheres that are joined at the bottom by the corpus callosum. It controls and integrates motor, sensory, and higher mental functions, such as thought, reason, emotion, and memory.

Cervical area - Of or relating to a neck or a cervix.

chyme - food in the stomach that is partly digested and mixed with stomach acids. Chyme goes on to the small intestine for further digestion.

Coronary vein - Any one of the veins that drains blood from the muscular tissue of the heart and empties into the coronary sinus.

Cranium - The portion of the skull enclosing the brain; the braincase.

Cystic duct - The duct that conveys bile from the gallbladder to the common bile duct.

descending colon - the part of the large intestine that run downwards after the transverse colon and before the sigmoid colon.

Diaphragm - A muscular membranous partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities and functioning in respiration.

Duodenum - The beginning portion of the small intestine; it is C-shaped and runs from the stomach to the jejunum.

Epiglottis - The thin elastic cartilaginous structure located at the root of the tongue that folds over the glottis to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during the act of swallowing.

Esophagus - The muscular, membranous tube for the passage of food (via peristalsis) from the pharynx to the stomach; the gullet.

Fontanel - Any of the soft membranous gaps between the incompletely formed cranial bones of a fetus or an infant. Also called soft spot.

Frontal bone - A cranial bone consisting of a vertical portion corresponding to the forehead and a horizontal portion that forms the roofs of the orbital and nasal cavities.

gall bladder - a small,muscular, sac-like organ located near the duodenum. It stores and releases bile (a digestive chemical which is produced in the liver) into the small intestine.

Glottis - The opening between the vocal cords at the upper part of the larynx.

Hard palate - The relatively hard, bony anterior portion of the palate.

Hepatic duct - The main excretory duct of the liver, which joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.

Ileocaceal valve - The sphincter valve between the ileum portion of the small intestine and the large intestine.

Ileum - The terminal portion of the small intestine extending from the jejunum to the cecum (just before the large intestine begins).

jejunum - the long, coiled mid-section of the small intestine; it is between the duodenum and the ileum.

Kidney - Either one of a pair of organs in the dorsal region of the vertebrate abdominal cavity, functioning to maintain proper water and electrolyte balance, regulate acid-base concentration, and filter the blood of metabolic wastes, which are then excreted as urine.

Larynx - The part of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and the trachea, having walls of cartilage and muscle and containing the vocal cords enveloped in folds of mucous membrane.

liver - a large organ located above and in front of the stomach. It filters toxins from the blood, and makes bile (which breaks down fats) and some blood proteins.

Longitudinal fissure - The diersion between the right and left hemisphere of the brain.

Mandible - The lower jaw of a vertebrate animal.

Mesentery - Any of several folds of the peritoneum that connect the intestines to the dorsal abdominal wall, especially such a fold that envelops the jejunum and ileum.

mouth - the first part of the digestive system, where food enters the body. Chewing and salivary enzymes in the mouth are the beginning of the digestive process (breaking down the food).

Nasopharyngeal opening - Passageway between the oralpharynx (throat) and the nasopharynx (nasal cavity).

Palate - The roof of the mouth in vertebrates having a complete or partial separation of the oral and nasal cavities and consisting of the hard palate and the soft palate.

Pancreas - A long, irregularly shaped gland in vertebrates, lying behind the stomach, that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum and insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin into the bloodstream.

pancreas - an enzyme-producing gland located below the stomach and above the intestines. Enzymes from the pancreas help in the digestion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the small intestine.

Parietal bone - Either of two large, irregularly quadrilateral bones between the frontal and occipital bones that together form the sides and top of the skull.

Pericardium - The membranous sac filled with serous fluid that encloses the heart and the roots of the aorta and other large blood vessels.

peristalsis - rhythmic muscle movements that force food in the esophagus from the throat into the stomach. Peristalsis is involuntary - you cannot control it. It is also what allows you to eat and drink while upside-down.

Peritoneum - The serous membrane that lines the walls of the abdominal cavity and folds inward to enclose the viscera.

Pulmonary artery - An artery that carries venous blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs.

Pyloric valve - Sphincter muscle between the stomach and the duodenum.

rectum - the lower part of the large intestine, where feces are stored before they are excreted.

salivary glands - glands located in the mouth that produce saliva. Saliva contains enzymes that break down carbohydrates (starch) into smaller molecules.

sigmoid colon - the part of the large intestine between the descending colon and the rectum.

Soft palate - The movable fold, consisting of muscular fibers enclosed in mucous membrane, that is suspended from the rear of the hard palate and closes off the nasal cavity from the oral cavity during swallowing or sucking.

Spinous process - The long rearward projection from the arch of a vertebra that provides a point of attachment for muscles and ligaments.

Spleen - A large, highly vascular lymphoid organ, lying in the human body to the left of the stomach below the diaphragm, serving to store blood, disintegrate old blood cells, filter foreign substances from the blood, and produce lymphocytes.

Sternum - A long flat bone in most vertebrates that is situated along the ventral midline of the thorax and articulates with the ribs. The manubrium of the sternum articulates with the clavicles in human beings and certain other vertebrates. Also called breastbone.

stomach - a sack-like, muscular organ that is attached to the esophagus. Both chemical and mechanical digestion takes place in the stomach. When food enters the stomach, it is churned in a bath of acids and enzymes.

Thoracic cavity - Chest cavity including the heart, lungs, thachea, area between the neck region and the diaphragm.

Thymus Gland - Gland located on the upper area of the heart.

Thyroid gland - A two-lobed endocrine gland found in all vertebrates, located in front of and on either side of the trachea in human beings, and producing various hormones, such as triiodothyronine and calcitonin.

Trachea - A thin-walled tube of cartilaginous and membranous tissue descending from the larynx to the bronchi and carrying air to the lungs. Also called windpipe.

transverse colon - the part of the large intestine that runs horizontally across the abdomen.

Transverse process - A process projecting outward from the side of a vertebra.

Trapezius muscle - Either of two large, flat, triangular muscles running from the base of the occiput to the middle of the back that support and make it possible to raise the head and shoulders.

Umbilical cord - The flexible cordlike structure connecting a fetus at the navel with the placenta and containing two umbilical arteries and one vein that transport nourishment to the fetus and remove its wastes.

Umbilical vein - Blood vessel located in the umbilical cord between the placenta and the fetus. Enters the inferior vena cava just beneath the liver.



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